- Diabetes— Diabetes affects the small capillaries in the retina of the eyes. These blood vessels may leak blood or a yellowish fluid, and this may be discovered in an eye exam. If your eye doctor notices this condition, you may have a condition called diabetic retinopathy.
- Hypertension— Eye doctors routinely measure your blood pressure, but they may also detect blood vessels in the eye with bends, kinks or tears. This may be an indication of high blood pressure.
- Autoimmune disorders— If the eye is inflamed, this may be a sign of Lupus or another autoimmune disorder.
- High cholesterol— The cornea may have a yellowish appearance or a yellow ring around it. This can be a sign of high cholesterol. There also may be plaques in the blood vessels of the retina which could indicate elevated cholesterol.
- Thyroid disease— One of the telltale signs of thyroid disease are bulging eyes or protruding eyeballs. This condition is also known as Graves Disease.
- Cancer— If your eye doctor notices that the structure of your eye is unusual, you may be referred to a specialist. Ocular melanoma can develop in the cells that make pigmentation in the eye. Your eye exam can also help detect skin cancer. Basal cell carcinomas can appear on the eyelid and could even spread to the brain through the eye.
- Tumors— Droopy eyelid or irregularly shaped pupils could possibly indicate a neck tumor or an aneurism (Source: Digital Journal).
Comprehensive eye exams are recommended once every two years for optimum eye health and overall wellness.